Motoren und Generatoren

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The reduction of carbon emission and ensuring healthy and sustainable development of the energy landscape present the main topic treated over the past decades. Electric machines play a crucial role to achieve net zero carbon footprint as being used in a variety of applications from electric vehicles to renewable energy generation [1]. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines PMSMs have been used widely in such applications thanks to their high efficiency and high-power density [2]. According to the literature, many researches focused on the performance analysis of external rotor PMSMs according to the design specifications [3] [4] [5].

The electrical machines optimization process is the study of various design parameters to achieve the best performance. The optimization objectives usually include maximizing the average torque while minimizing the ripple rate.

More Electric Aircraft (MEA) is a promising market in aviation that offers eco-friendly aircraft with the potential to reduce fuel consumption, emissions, and noise, thereby reducing the environmental impact of aviation [1]. Electric motors in electric aircraft are lighter than their combustion engine counterparts, directly reducing the aircraft's weight and improving its energy conversion efficiency [2]. MEA electric motors offer high power density and reliability, outperforming traditional systems.

As the need for more efficient and reliable electric motors grows, new ideas have been developed to achieve better performance characteristics such as higher torque density, lower torque ripple rate, and lower power losses. The optimization procedure itself contains various aspects including the analysis of different design parameters to reach the best possible performance [1].

A linear power system, where a linear machine is driven directly by a free piston engine (FPE), is one of the promising technologies that offer scalability and wide-range applicability. The permanent magnet (PM) based linear electric motor can achieve high acceleration rates and long travel lengths with good thrust forces and extremely high positioning accuracies.

Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used by electromagnetic machinery for decades, thanks to their electrical stability, durability, and reliable performance. Although not yet mainstream, electric motors based on the Halbach arrays offer tangible benefits over conventional surface-mounted PM designs, including improved power density, higher torque density, and a stronger magnetic field for the same amount of PM volume.

The increase in the demand of linear motors is principally driven by the replacement of traditional mechanical (ball screws, gear trains, cams), hydraulic, or pneumatic linear motion systems in manufacturing processes with direct electromechanical drives. Linear motors are also used in various applications such as high-speed maglev transport and elevator hoisting.

Synchronous generators are the most popular energy converter to generate electrical energy from mechanical energy [1]. Although they are widely used at different power stations, they can also be found in transportation applications such as aircraft and ships. In this application note, a typical synchronous generator used in an aircraft electrical system is studied under different load conditions. Its performance is investigated using the finite element method (FEM) tool in EMWorks 2D software.

Permanent magnet brushless DC motors (PMBLDC) are used in a wide range of applications thanks to their high-power density and ease of control. In particular, outer runner PMBLDC is utilized in direct drive wind turbines and small electric vehicles such as golf cars and electric bikes to mitigate the need for mechanical transmission or gearboxes. This can improve the efficiency of the whole system which results in a longer battery lifetime