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An antenna is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert electromagnetic radiation into electric current, or vice versa. Antennas generally deal in the transmission and reception of radio waves, and are a necessary part of all radio equipment. Antennas are used in systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless LAN, cell phones, radar, and spacecraft communication.

**Applications**

Using the Antenna analysis, antennas of all types and shapes can readily be simulated. The vector wave equation is solved using vector finite element to obtain the near/far antenna fields and all related antenna parameters such as gain, directivity, efficiency, pattern, etc. All sort of antennas can be studied, including:

- Wire
- Printed
- Horn
- Aperture
- Arrays
- Radomes
- log-periodic
- Reflector
- Yagi
- Patch
- Parabolic

The Antennas module outputs the following results for each study at each frequency:

- All antenna parameters including gain, directivity, efficiency, axial ratio, input impedance, etc
- Far field parameters including radiation patterns
- Generalized S-parameters matrix
- Re-normalized S-parameters matrix
- Unique impedance matrix
- Unique admittance matrix
- TDR
- VSWR
- Propagation parameters at each port
- Impedances at each port
- Electric near field distribution
- Magnetic near field distribution

The Antennas module can help study a large number of antenna structures and address numerous far-field and near-field effects. Below is just a partial list:

- Obtain the vector frequency response of an arbitrary 3D antenna structures.
- Obtain the radiation pattern of an antenna over a frequency range.
- Compute the resonant frequency of an antenna.
- Eliminate the reactance of an antenna.
- Maximize the ratio of the radiation resistance to ohmic resistance of an antenna.
- Achieve a good matching over a frequency range.
- Respect the power rating of a transmitting antenna to avoid sparking and arcing.
- Optimize the noise rejection of a receiving antenna.
- Study the effect of radomes on the antenna parameters.
- Obtain all antenna parameters including gain, directivity, efficiency, axial ratio, input impedance, radiation resistance, etc.
- Account for both dielectric and conductor losses.
- Study the fidelity of an antenna.
- Minimize the side lobes.
- Study the EMI/EMC of a structure.
- Study the effect of material and dimension on the antenna and field parameters.
- Study the effect of the environment on the antenna performance, especially the ground.
- Design efficient radomes to protect and hide the antenna.
- Design radar absorbing materials (RAM).