# HFWorks/ S-parameters Analysis?

Scattering parameters or S-parameters (the elements of a scattering matrix or S-matrix) describe the electrical behaviours of linear electrical networks when undergoing various steady state stimuli by electrical signals. Although applicable at any frequency, S-parameters are mostly used for networks operating at radio frequency and microwave frequencies where signal power and energy considerations are more easily quantified than currents and voltages. S-parameters change with the frequency are readily represented in matrix form and obey the rules of matrix algebra.The HFWorks/S-parameters analysis belongs to the high frequency electromagnetic, or the full wave, regime, i.e. Maxwell’s displacement current that couples the electric and magnetic fields is significant and thus taken into consideration. The vector wave equation, i.e. combination of the full Maxwell’s equations, is solved using vector finite element to obtain the S-parameters and the electric/magnetic fields and related design parameters. It has many practical applications, including:

• Connectors
• Filters
• Couplers
• Attenuators
• Terminators
• Baluns
• Integrated Circuit
• Waveguides
• Power dividers
• Multiplexers
• Power combiners
• Transitions